1. Explain about PRM and PWD passengers.
PRM Passengers :
Passengers with reduced mobility (PRM) are defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) as people whose mobility is reduced by physical incapacity, both sensory and locomotor, or intellectual deficiencies due to advanced age, illness or other disability when using transport, and whose situation requires special attention
PWD Passengers :
Passengers with Disabilities (PWD) includes passengers with reduced mobility and passengers with non-visible disabilities which can be temporary or permanent conditions.
For PWDs requiring/requesting assistance, they will be assigned a seat in their ticketed cabin which accommodates the passengers’ needs, in consultation with the passengers, and ensure that they are not allocated or occupy seats where their presence could impede the emergency evacuation. If the PWD is travelling with a personal care attendant and/or safety assistant, they shall be given seats immediately adjacent to or across the aisle from the passenger they are assisting.
2. Explain about Baggage handling.
Airport baggage handling system is made up of a structured network of conveyors designed to perform different tasks. The first main belt conveyor system is the core of the check-in area, where the heaviest baggage not admitted on the plane are scanned, sorted and moved to the right boarding gate automatically. To get access to departure gates, passengers and their bags must pass an X-Ray screening. Here, numerous roller conveyors work to facilitate and speed up this security procedure. Finally, at the destination airport, a belt conveyor transports all luggage from the arrival gate to the right baggage collection area to deliver them to passengers. To cope with requirements of these automatic systems, including frequent start and stops operations, different movement directions and elevated quantities of conveyed baggage, the aviation industry tends to invest in new technologies. Innovation and efficiency of baggage handling systems have a great impact on the entire airport operation, as well as on passengers’ satisfaction.
3. Explain the methods to handle disabled passengers.
Handling disabled passengers at airports requires careful planning, coordination, and sensitivity to ensure their safety, comfort, and accessibility throughout their journey. Airlines and airport authorities follow established procedures and provide assistance to accommodate passengers with disabilities. Here are the methods commonly employed to handle disabled passengers:
4. Explain about the processing of air cargo and how it is handled.
Cargo handling is that part of the supply chain that relates to the final part of delivery. Cargo handling can be done by air or sea and these are some of the processes involved in air cargo handling: delivery at the origin airport, loading on the plane, unloading at the destination, delivering to the consignee or freight forwarder.
5. Explain the functions of an airport.
Airports play a multifaceted role in the transportation system, serving as crucial hubs for air travel and contributing to economic, social, and regional development. The functions of an airport are diverse and encompass various activities and services that collectively ensure the safe and efficient operation of air travel. Here are the key functions of an airport:
6. What are the roles and responsibilities of ground handling?
Ground handling services in the aviation industry involve a range of activities performed on the ground to ensure the safe, efficient, and timely turnaround of aircraft between flights. These services are essential for the smooth operation of an airport and the overall passenger experience. The roles and responsibilities of ground handling personnel can vary, but here is a general overview:
7. Explain about Annexure 17: SARPs.
The most important legislative function performed by ICAO is the formulation and adoption of Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) for international civil aviation. These are incorporated into the 19 technical annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known as the Chicago Convention.
Of critical importance to the future of civil aviation and to the international community at large are the measures taken by ICAO to prevent and suppress all acts of unlawful interference against civil aviation throughout the world. SARPs for international aviation security were first adopted by the ICAO Council in March 1974, and designated as Annex 17 to the Chicago Convention.
8. What is the importance of Passenger handling.
Passenger handling is a critical aspect of the aviation industry that encompasses a range of services and processes designed to ensure a positive and efficient experience for air travelers. The importance of passenger handling extends to various aspects of air travel, impacting both the airline’s reputation and the overall satisfaction of passengers.
9. Explain in detail about hotel industry
It plays a crucial role in the global travel and tourism industry by providing temporary accommodations for travelers, tourists, and business professionals. The hotel industry is characterized by its variety, ranging from budget accommodations to luxury resorts, and it includes various types of properties such as hotels, motels, resorts, inns, hostels, and more.
Functions and Operations in the Hotel Industry:
1. Explain about the roles and responsibilities in detail.
Aviation involves a complex network of roles and responsibilities, ranging from those involved in operating and maintaining aircraft to those managing the various aspects of air travel. Here’s an overview of some key roles and their responsibilities within the aviation industry:
1. Pilot Responsibilities:
2. Flight Attendant Responsibilities:
3. Aircraft Maintenance Technician Responsibilities:
4. Air Traffic Controller Responsibilities:
5. Aerospace Engineer Responsibilities:
6. Airline Operations Manager Responsibilities:
2. Explain about Passenger handling in detail.
Passenger handling in aviation refers to the process of managing and assisting travelers from the moment they arrive at an airport to the time they board their flight. This involves a series of interconnected activities and services aimed at ensuring a smooth and comfortable experience for passengers. Here is an overview of the key aspects of passenger handling in aviation:
1. Check-in Process:
2. Baggage Handling:
3. Security Screening:
4. Boarding Process:
5. Special Assistance:
6. Passenger Services:
7. Arrival Process:
8. Lost and Found:
Lost Baggage: In the event of lost or delayed baggage, airports have procedures and services to help passengers locate and recover their belongings.
9. Customer Service:
Assistance: Airlines and airports provide customer service to address passenger concerns, flight information, and other inquiries.
3. Explain about cargo services at export shed and transit hub.
Cargo services at export sheds and transit hubs play a crucial role in the transportation of goods across borders and between different modes of transportation. These facilities are key components of the logistics chain, ensuring the smooth flow of goods from the point of origin to their final destination. Here’s an overview of cargo services at export sheds and transit hubs:
1. Cargo Acceptance:
Export sheds are facilities where exporters bring their goods for shipment. Cargo acceptance involves checking and accepting shipments from exporters, verifying documentation, and ensuring compliance with export regulations.
Export documentation, including the preparation of export declarations, invoices, and other required paperwork, is a critical aspect. This documentation ensures that the cargo meets legal and regulatory requirements for international shipping.
3. Customs Clearance:
Export sheds are often equipped with customs clearance facilities. Customs officials review documentation, inspect cargo if necessary, and clear the goods for export. Compliance with export regulations and payment of any applicable duties or taxes are essential components.
4. Packaging and Labeling:
Cargo must be appropriately packaged and labeled for international shipment. Export sheds may provide services or facilities for packaging, labeling, and securing goods to meet transportation and safety standards.
5. Consolidation and Sorting:
Export sheds may act as consolidation points where smaller shipments from multiple exporters are combined into larger consignments. Sorting facilities help organize shipments based on destination, mode of transport, or other criteria.
6. Security Screening:
Security is a top priority in international cargo handling. Export sheds implement security measures, including screening for prohibited items and adherence to international security standards.
Temporary storage facilities are often available at export sheds for cargo awaiting shipment. Proper storage ensures that goods are maintained in optimal condition until they are loaded onto the transport vehicle or container.
1. Cargo Transfer and Handling:
Transit hubs serve as intermediaries where cargo is transferred between different modes of transportation, such as from air to ground or sea transport. Efficient cargo handling systems are crucial for minimizing transit times and ensuring smooth transfers.
2. Customs Transit Procedures:
Cargo passing through a transit hub may need to undergo customs transit procedures. This involves documentation checks and may include inspections to ensure compliance with transit regulations. Customs transit procedures facilitate the movement of goods across international borders without the need for immediate import clearance.
Transit hubs often have warehousing facilities for short-term storage of cargo in transit. Warehouses are equipped to handle a wide range of goods and may provide services such as inventory management and order fulfillment.
Cross-docking is a logistics strategy where incoming goods are directly transferred from inbound to outbound transportation without being stored in between. This helps minimize storage time and expedite the movement of goods through the transit hub.
5. Documentation and Information Services:
Transit hubs play a role in managing the flow of information related to cargo movements. This includes tracking shipments, providing real-time information to stakeholders, and ensuring that all required documentation is in order.
6. Security Measures:
Similar to export sheds, transit hubs implement security measures to safeguard cargo during its transit. This includes security screenings, surveillance, and adherence to international security protocols.
4. Explain about Special passengers in detail.
“Special passengers” refer to individuals who may require special attention or assistance while traveling due to various reasons. Airlines and other transportation services have procedures in place to accommodate the needs of these passengers and ensure their safety, comfort, and convenience. Here are some categories of special passengers and the considerations associated with each:
1. Passengers with Reduced Mobility (PRM):
Description: PRM includes individuals with physical disabilities, such as those using wheelchairs or walking aids.
2. Pregnant Passengers:
Description: Expectant mothers at various stages of pregnancy.
3. Elderly Passengers:
Description: Older individuals who may require assistance.
4. Passengers with Medical Conditions:
Description: Individuals with specific medical conditions or illnesses.
5. Blind or Visually Impaired Passengers:
Description: Individuals with visual impairments.
6. Deaf or Hard of Hearing Passengers:
Description: Individuals with hearing impairments.
5. Explain about air catering in detail.
Air catering, also known as in-flight catering or airline catering, is the process of providing food and beverage services to airline passengers during their journey. It involves the preparation, packaging, and delivery of meals to be served on board an aircraft. Air catering is a crucial component of the overall in-flight experience, and it requires careful coordination between catering companies, airlines, and sometimes, third-party suppliers. Here’s a detailed overview of air catering:
6. Explain about Security, screening for people and infrastructure at airports.
SECURITY SCREENING FOR PEOPLE:
SECURITY SCREENING FOR INFRASTRUCTURE:
7. Explain in detail about IATA ground handling council and its purpose.
Purpose of IATA’s Involvement in Ground Handling:
8. Explain Cargo Service in Import Shed and Transit Shed.
Cargo services in import sheds and transit sheds play a crucial role in the logistics and movement of goods during the import process. These facilities are part of the larger cargo handling and customs clearance operations at airports, seaports, or other entry points. Let’s explore the functions and processes involved in cargo services at import sheds and transit sheds:
Both import sheds and transit sheds are integral components of the logistics infrastructure, facilitating the movement of goods across borders and between various transportation modes. The efficiency and reliability of cargo services at these facilities contribute significantly to international trade and supply chain operations.
9. Explain in detail about role and scope of hospitality in Aviation.
Role of Hospitality in Aviation:
Scope of Hospitality in Aviation: