CHAPTER – 10
Airport Functional Layout
Efficient Airport services aid in smooth transit through the airport, as well as in successful airline operations. To gain complete control over Airport services and operations, integrated planning services are used which meet quality standards that involve safety and security of the entire airport.
Every minute. detail of airport services and operations is planned. To domain of the airlines industry is the most challenging example of operational planning. Airport functional layout discusses the major elements that are involved in the designing and planning of the terminal area.
Airport Layout Plan
Airside and Landside
The foremost concern is the creation of a segregated Airside from the Landside by erecting a Landside-Airside demarcation. Airside must be demarked specifically by erecting an Airside / Landside barrier, which is generally the Airport Perimeter Wall.
At times, building such as Terminal Building and Cargo Building also act as barriers. Before proceeding to understanding concepts, the definitions need to be understood.
The movement area of an airport, adjacent terrain and buildings or portions thereof, access to which is controlled”. Thus the Aprons, Hangers, Runways, Taxiways, Security Hold Areas, etc., are the parts of the Airside.
Landside – Definition
“That area of an airport and buildings to which both travelling passengers and the non- travelling public have unrestricted access. Check – in Counters, shops and restaurants are examples of the Landside.
The Departure area in the Airside has the following areas:
The Airside in the Airport starts through the boarding gate, which is in the Security Hold Area. This area also has a bus lounge for passengers. At smaller airports, passengers walk to the Aircraft parked on the Apron. At larger airports, there are aerobridges in the corridor, which get attached to the Aircraft and this is the mode of boarding for nose-in bays.
Passengers enter the Apron area from the security hold area through either.
Apron is divided into several bays for placing Aircraft. Some exclusive bays are allotted to Cargo Airlines for carrying out Cargo operations.
The Departure area of the Terminal Building has the Baggage – Make up area in the Airside. Registered baggage is sorted out here for flight and destinations.
The Arrival area in the Airside has the following areas:
In case passengers have to undertake another journey by Air, they proceed to the departure level through the Transit Gate.
The airside of airports also holds the following:
Aircraft Maintenance Areas and Hangers (within Airside)
An Aerodrome also consists of parking bays located at Aprons for aircraft. Parking bays are normally associated with terminals.
For Example, an international flight will park at the international Apron I Parking bay reserved for international flights and domestic aircraft are parked at Domestic Apron / Bays.
A defined area, on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft Tor purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, fueling, parking or maintenance. Apron is also known as the Aerobridge Area.
A defined path, on a land aerodrome, is established for the taxiing of aircraft and intended to provide a link between one part of the aerodrome and another.
The main entry to and exit from the airport starts from the landside of the airport. These areas (approach and the Parking Lots0 are also referred to as City side of an Airport.
The landside of an airport has three main areas;
The perimeter is the first line of defense in providing physical security at an airport. It could be a wall, a fence, or a part of building.
The perimeter has the following functions:
The Perimeter is a security requirement due to which, unauthorized access is detected, it creates a psychological deterrent as well.
Terminal Buildings are the Gateways to the Airport, through which the departing passengers and the arriving passengers have the first interface with the airport. A terminal building houses all the facilities for the passengers and carries on the essential traveling and regulatory formalities. Since a terminal building acts as a service center for transit and processing of passengers, it must balance aesthetics with function.
Terminal Building is designed to function for:
Airport Terminal Buildings must be designed to accommodate the following:
Terminal Area includes:
Automobile Parking at airport is a major source of revenue. It consists of:
In case the automobile parking is off – airport, the costs of operating it are low where a shuttle is used to access the airport.
Passenger processing involves the passenger:
Luggage that is taken inside the plane is processed in the following locations:
Getting to the Gate
In order to get to the gate a passenger must pass through the security,after reaching it by adhering to the procedures laid down.
Travelling Along Concourse
The concourse of the Airport is designed to make the place passenger friendly and convenient for the required equipment, to be laid out ergonomically, where operations can be carried out without detracting from the aesthetics or design of the Airport. Sometimes the Walkabouts are also designed.
Design Based on Hourly Visit
The design of the concourse is based on hourly passengers / visitors, while its arrangements depend on the terminal design. The space of an airport is architecturally designed to cater to the number of passengers transiting through the airport. This take care of the congestion and the place does not look very claustrophobic. The operations become smooth and there are no bottlenecks.
Arrangement Depends on Terminal Design
Architectural Designs of airport differ vividly from one airport to another. Equipment, facilities, and amenities are located based on the design of the airport.
The Terminal building has the following passenger amenities:
The Terminal building also has the Boarding Area.
The functions of the boarding area are:
The size of the boarding area is based upon type of aircraft and number of passengers handled. Boarding area also provides accommodations for passengers with special needs.
Types of Aerobridges
The Boarding Bridge in the Boarding area may be
Vital Navigational Installations
Navigation systems have developed from primitive ground-based radio transmitters to sophisticated space-based systems.
Navigation systems assist:
Examples: ILS, VOR, ATC, Transmission stations, Radar
Instrument landing System (ILS)
ILS facilities are a highly accurate and dependable means of navigating to the runway in IFR conditions. When using the ILS, the pilot determines aircraft position primarily by reference to instruments.
The ILS consists of:
ILS stations are installed at all international airports
ILS is used to:
Doppler Very High Frequency Omni-Range (DVOR)
DVOR is a basic electronic navigation that is commonly used. An aircraft navigates from one airport to the other, in technical terms, from one DVOR to another.
This DVOR navigation method:
Most VOR stations also have distance-measuring equipment (DME). A display indicator located in the aircraft reads the signals and tells the pilot if they are on course and how far they are from the station. VOR- DME Systems are limited in range to 160 miles and can only provide direct courses to or from a given station.
Air Traffic Control (ATC)
ATC forms the Central Nervous System of all communications between the Aircraft and the Airport. The infrastructure of the modern Airport is equipped with state – of – the- art navigational aids to help the aircraft communicate with the facilities at the airport and the person manning the ATC. Collisions are the only reason aircraft need to be kept apart.
Three elements work in tandem maintain aircraft safely. They are:
There are two type of radar systems installed at each ATC ground station. The first, called the Primary Surveillance Radar, operates on the principle of sending a narrow beam of energy, which is reflected from the aircraft under surveillance, and measuring its distance by noting the time lapse between the radar pulse transmission and the received echo. The second, called the Secondary Surveillance Radar, operates on the coded reply sent from the airborne radio beacon Transponder in response to an interrogation sent from the ground Radar Station.